Home GRAMMAR DIRECT-INDIRECT SPEECH

DIRECT-INDIRECT SPEECH

GRAMMAR_DIRECT-INDIRECT SPEECH

 

WHAT IS DIRECT SPEECH?
Direct Speech is the report of the speaker using his/her own words directly. It is the repetition of person’s words directly. Direct Speech is the group of unchanged words presented as they are, using quotation marks.
   e.g. John said, “I am ready to show my skill today.”

 

WHAT IS INDIRECT SPEECH?
Indirect Speech is the conveyance of the statement without changing its meaning. It is the report of what another person said, told or asked. Indirect Speech is the content which is expressed in our own words, without quotation marks.
e.g. John said that he was ready to show his skill that day.

 

CHANGES OCCUR IN INDIRECT SPEECH


PRONOUNS

 I  he/she
 you  he/she/they/him/her
 we  they
 my  his/her
 me  him/her
 our  their
 your  his/her/their
 us  them
 myself  himself/herself
 ourselves  themselves


VERBS

 am/is  was
 are  was/were
 have/has  had
 was/were  had been
 do/does  did/past form of main verb
 did  had + past participle


MODAL AUXILIARIES

 shall  would/should
 will  would
 can  could
 may  might
 must  must/had to
 ought to  ought to/had to


TIME AND PLACE ADVERBIALS

 this  that
 these  those
 it  it
 here  there
 thus  so
 now  then
 just  then
 ago  before
 hither  thither
 come  go
 hence  thence
 yet  till then
 today  that day
 tomorrow  the next day
 the day after
 tomorrow
 the day after the next day
 yesterday  the day before
 the day before
 yesterday
 the day before the previous day
 tonight  that night
 next day  the following day
 next week  the following week
 last night  the night before


TENSES

 Simple Present  Simple Past
 Continuous Present  Continuous Past
 Perfect Present  Perfect Past
 Perfect Continuous
.Present
 Perfect Continuous Past
 Simple Past  Perfect Past
 Continuous Past  Perfect Continuous Past
 Perfect Past  NO CHANGE
 Perfect Continuous Past  NO CHANGE

 

EXAMPLES


A. DECLARATIVE SENTENCE

Direct Indirect
He said, “He will be going to London tomorrow”. He said that he would be going to London the following day.
John said, “I have to complete my work today”. John said that he had to complete his work that day.
“We made a very big cake for Mary’s birthday”, said Mary’s mother. Mary’s mother said that they had made a very big cake for Mary’s birthday.
Robert told, “I have been working in this company for ten years”. Robert told that he had been working in that company for ten years.
“I am watching my favourite movie now”, I said to my friend. I told my friend that I was watching my favourite movie then.
James said to Williams, ‘You must come here at any cost”. James told Williams that he had to go there at any cost.
Elizabeth says, “I am prettier than Jane”. Elizabeth says that she is prettier than Jane.
She said, “I ought to start work-out in order to lose weight”. She said that she ought to start work-out in order to lose weight.
They told, “We were playing cricket on the playground”. They told that they had been playing cricket on the playground.
Lisa said to Tom, “You are a liar, I can’t trust you any longer”. Lisa said to Tom that he was a liar and that she could not trust him any longer.
We said to their uncle, “They must work devotedly to become successful”. We told their uncle that they had to work devotedly to become successful.
“She wants to drop out of school”, I said with fear to her father. I told her father with fear that she wanted to drop out of school.
I said, “You have got done with your work and you can go home now”. I said that they had got done with their work and they could go home then.
The old woman accosted a small boy, “You are not allowed to be in the premises of this building”. The old woman accosted a small boy that he was not allowed to be in the premises of that building.
“They are about to sleep”, I said. I said that they were about to sleep.
She told, “The clock struck 12:00pm”. She told that the clock had struck 12:00pm.
“I will help you at any rate”, He promised Simon. He promised Simon that he would help him at any rate.
“You are going to destroy yourselves”, I warned them. I warned them that they were going to destroy themselves.
She said, “Danny, you are so crooked”. She said to Danny that he was so crooked.
He said, “I have planned to go to a lawyer tomorrow”. He said that he had planned to go to a lawyer the next day.
Amanda said to Joe, “We were having dinner when you called us up”. Amanda told Joe that they had been having dinner when he had called them up.
She told, “I am not feeling well”. She told that she was not feeling well.
They said, “We are not going to tolerate this any longer”. They said that they were not going to tolerate that any longer.
I said, “He will continue saying here till his heart’s content”. I said that he would continue staying there till his heart’s content.

useful english speaking expressions


B. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE

YES/NO TYPE

Direct Indirect
“Are you coming today? He asked James. He asked James whether he was coming that day.
He proposed marriage to her, “Will you be mine forever?” He proposed marriage to her and asked if she would be thine forever.
“Can you please, help me?” John asked a stranger. John requested a stranger if he could help him.
“Has he gone to college today?” Mary asked her neighbour. Mary enquired to her neighbour whether he had gone to college that day.
“Was he playing games on Cellphone? Charles’ mother asked her husband. Charles’ mother asked her husband if he had been playing games on cellphone.
“Must I do this for you?” Jack asked piggy. Jack asked Piggy if he had to do that for him.
“Is it raining cats and dogs there?” Mother asked Jane. Mother enquired to Jane if it was raining cats and dogs there.
“Were you present here when the crime took place? The police asked him suspiciously. The police investigated him suspiciously if he had been present there when the crime had taken place.
“Have you been waiting here for long?” Robert asked Clara hesitatingly. Robert asked Clara hesitatingly if she had been waiting there for long.
“Did you do this without telling me?” He asked John angrily. He asked John angrily if he had done that without telling him.
“Were you making me fool? She asked him irritatingly. She asked him irritatingly if he had been making her fool.
“Is he dancing to the tunes his wife?” He asked him kiddingly. He asked him kiddingly if he was dancing to the tunes of his wife.
“Does it really matter?” John asked her. John asked her if it really mattered.
“Do you really mean that?” She asked. She asked if he really meant that.
“Are you sure?” The principal confirmed. The principal confirmed whether he was sure.
 “Will you ever forget what happened there?” He asked him with fear. He asked him if he would ever forget what happened there.
“Is it true?” Johnny asked his brother surprisingly. Johnny asked his brother surprisingly if it was true.
“Is that you who gave me chocolates yesterday?” A kid asked the lady. A kid asked the lady if it was she who had given him chocolates the previous day.
James’ friend asked him, “Is he a vegetarian by birth or by choice?” James’ friend asked him if he was a vegetarian by birth or by choice.
Mr. Lockwood asked Mr. Bennett, “Will you continue the show after me?” Mr. Lockwood asked Mr. Bennett if he would continue the show after him.
John asked, “Did he have two minutes?” John asked if he had two minutes.
Captain Saurabh asked Ishaant, “Will you do one more over?” Captain Saurabh asked Ishaant if he would do one more over.
Mrs. Tavleen asked, “Is that not a betrayal by our political leaders?” Mrs. Tavleen asked whether that was not a betrayal by their political leaders.
“Are they going through a crisis?” He enquired. He enquired if they were going through a crisis.
Mr. Smith was asked, “Will he take over as a captain of an Australian cricket team?” Mr. Smith was asked if he would take over as a captain of an Australian cricket team.


WH TYPE

Direct Indirect
“Why are you quarreling with me?” she asked her sister. She asked her sister why she was quarreling with her.
“What is your name?” he asked a little boy. He asked a little boy what his name was.
Mary asked John, “Why didn’t you search for a smartwatch?” Mary asked John why he had not searched for a smartwatch.
“What were you doing here?” Joseph asked Peter suspiciously. Joseph asked Peter suspiciously what he had been doing there.
The group of people asked the commissioner “Who was behind the conspiracy?” The group of people asked the commissioner who had been behind the conspiracy.
The students asked, “How will be the sustainable growth achieved?” The students asked how the sustainable growth would be achieved.
One major question raised in the conference was, “How will the native tribes keep away from pandemics like Covid-19?” One major question raised in the conference was how the native tribes would keep away from pandemics like Covid-19.
Mr. Broad asked the umpire, “How’s that?” Mr. Broad asked the umpire how it was.
Teacher asked the student, “why are you late today? Teacher asked the student why he was late that day.
He asked her, “What is your problem?” He asked her what her problem was.
He asked them, “Who are you?” He asked them who they were.
“Which are your favourite books? He asked her. He asked her which her favourite books were.
The manager asked the CEO, “Whom shall I recruit?” The manager asked the CEO whom he should recruit.
The reporter asked, “Why are petrol prices soaring?” The reporter asked why petrol prices were soaring.
The student asked Mr. Musk, “What do you think about colonizing Mars?” The student asked Mr. Musk what he thought about colonizing Mars.
She asked him, “Why do you torture me like this?” She asked him why he tortured her like that.
“Why do you prefer Android to Apple?”  The man asked. The man asked why he preferred Android to Apple.
The chancellor asked the professor, “How will you make sure the quality of research?” The chancellor asked the professor how he would make sure the quality of research.

useful english speaking expressions


C. IMPERATIVE SENTENCE

Direct Indirect
“Get going right now”, he said angrily to him. He angrily ordered him to get going right then.
“Help me, please”, Mary said to John. Mary requested John to help her.
“Speak the truth”, She said to him. She told him to speak the truth.
“Shut the door”, the teacher ordered him. The teacher ordered him to shut the door.
“Make sure that you have submitted your exam forms”. The teacher said. The teacher instructed to make sure that they had submitted their exam forms.
“Please, collect your cash and card”, the machine said. The machine instructed to collect their cash and card.
“Stop the nonsense”, the husband said. The husband warned to stop the nonsense.
“Wear the spectacles”, the doctor instructed. The doctor instructed to wear the spectacles.
“Don’t cross your limit”, John said to Peter. John told Peter not cross his limit.
“Arrest me if you can”, he challenged him. He challenged him to arrest him if he could.
“Appoint the H.O.D”, the teacher asked the principal. The teacher requested the principal to appoint the H.O.D.
“Help me manage this mess”, the wife requested her husband. The wife requested her husband to help her manage that mess.
“Chase your dreams”, he advised. He advised to chase his dreams.
“Don’t compromise your integrity”, Steve Smith cried. Steve Smith cried not to compromise their integrity.
“Forgive us”, Warner requested. Warner requested to forgive them.
“Put on your mask before entering the room”, the doctor said. The doctor advised to put on their mask before entering the room.
“Don’t give up”, John says. John says not to give up.
“Stay calm and focus your objectives”, He advises. He advises to stay calm and focus your objectives.
“Don’t drink water until you answer my questions”, Yaksha warned Arjuna. Yaksha warned Arjuna not to drink water until he answered his questions.
“Educate, unite and agitate”, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar said. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar said to educate, unite and agitate.
“Liberate yourself from the shackles of your limitations”, he said. He said to liberate themselves from the shackles of their limitations.
“Arrange the cards according to alphabets”, the librarian asked the students. The librarian asked the students to arrange the cards according to alphabets.
“Fix my computer, please”, she said to him. She requested him to fix her computer.
“Cover yourself properly with warm clothes as it’s very cold”, the mother advised her small daughter. The mother advised her small daughter to cover herself properly with warm clothes as it’s very cold.
“Don’t waste your time”, the teacher told students. The teacher told students not to waste their time.
“Narrate a story for me”, the girl requested her Granny. The girl requested her Granny to narrate a story for her.
“Argue logically to make a good impression”, the advocate advised the intern. The advocate advised the intern to argue logically to make a good impression.

useful english speaking expressions


D. EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE

Direct Indirect
“It’s high in the sky, going, going and gone!” The commentator narrated. The commentator exclaimed with great joy that it had gone high in the sky.
“How jealous!” Anna said. Anna exclaimed with surprise that it was so jealous.
“Oh my god, you know that!” the lecturer surprised. The lecturer surprised that he knew that.
“Oh gosh! That’s dreadful!” the viewers cried. The viewers cried with fear that it was very dreadful.
“How ridiculous!” John exclaimed. John exclaimed with disgust that it was very ridiculous.
“Oops! That shouldn’t have happened” whispered the model. The model whispered with regret that it should not have happened.
“Alas! He is dead”. She exclaimed. She exclaimed sadly that he was dead.
He shouted angrily, “Damn it! I again lost the race”. He shouted very angrily that he had lost the race again.
“Well done! You performed excellently”, the teacher said to Mary. The teacher applauded Mary that she had performed excellently.
“Yuck! It looks so dirty”, she exclaimed. She exclaimed with disgust that it looked so dirty.
“Wow! It’s very beautiful”, he said. He exclaimed with a great joy that it was very beautiful.
“Ouch! I broke my leg”, he said with pain. He exclaimed with pain that he had broken his leg.
He said, “How stupid am I!” He exclaimed that he was very stupid.
He said, “What a nice dress it is!” He exclaimed that it was a very nice dress.
James said to Robert, “Congratulations!” James congratulated Robert.
He said, “Oh, I lost my wallet!” He exclaimed with sorrow that he had lost his wallet.
Teacher said to Jack, “How smart you are!” Teacher exclaimed with wonder that Jack was very smart.
“Alas! Many people died of Corona”, he said. He exclaimed with sorrow that many people had died of Corona.
“Hurrah! I got selected for the competition”, she shouted. She shouted with a great joy that she had got selected for the competition.
“How mean you are!” she said to him. She exclaimed with wonder that he was very mean.
“Thank God! The bus arrived timely”, he said. He exclaimed with gratitude that the bus had arrived timely.
They shouted, “You are a loser!” They shouted teasing him that he was a loser.
“Get lost out of my sight!” the boss shouted at him. The boss shouted at him and asked him angrily to get lost out of his sight.
She said to her, “Good night!” She wished her good night.

 

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8 COMMENTS

  1. Very nice explanation of Direct and indirect speech with suitable example.It is very easy to understand how to make Direct and indirect speech and it is also useful for teachers and students.

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